Harvard School of Public Health AIDS Initiative


Research Papers - Recent Papers


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Shao ER, Kifaro EG, Chilumba IB, Nyombi BM, Moyo S, Gaseitsiwe S, Musonda R, Johannessen A, Kibiki G, Essex M. HIV-1 drug mutations in children from northern Tanzania. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Apr 11.

Auld AF, Tuho MZ, Ekra KA, Kouakou J, Shiraishi RW, Adjorlolo-Johnson G, Marlink R, Ellerbrock TV. Tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children starting antiretroviral therapy in Côte d'Ivoire. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2014 Apr.

Russell ES, Mohammed T, Smeaton L, Jorowe B, Macleod IJ, Hoffman RM, Currier JS, Moyo S, Essex M, Lockman S. Immune activation markers in peripartum women in botswana: association with feeding strategy and maternal morbidity. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 21

Wang R, Goyal R, Lei Q, Essex M, De Gruttola V. Sample size considerations in the design of cluster randomized trials of combination HIV prevention. Clin Trials. 2014 Mar 20.

Plank RM, Wirth KE, Ndubuka NO, Abdullahi R, Nkgau M, Lesetedi C, Powis KM, Mmalane M, Makhema J, Shapiro R, Lockman S. Single-Arm Evaluation of the AccuCirc Device for Early Infant Male Circumcision in Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Mar 3.

Grinsztejn B, Hosseinipour MC, Ribaudo HJ, Swindells S, Eron J, Chen YQ, Wang L, Ou SS, Anderson M, McCauley M, Gamble T, Kumarasamy N, Hakim JG, Kumwenda J, Pilotto JH, Godbole SV, Chariyalertsak S, de Melo MG, Mayer KH, Eshleman SH, Piwowar-Manning E, Makhema J, Mills LA, Panchia R, Sanne I, Gallant J, Hoffman I, Taha TE, Nielsen-Saines K, Celentano D, Essex M, Havlir D, Cohen MS; the HPTN 052-ACTG Study Team. Effects of early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment on clinical outcomes of HIV-1 infection: results from the phase 3 HPTN 052 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Mar 3

Farahani M., Vable A., Lebelonyane R., Seipone K., Anderson M., Avalos A., Chadborn T., Tilahun H., Roumis Themba Moeti D., Musuka G., Busang L., Gaolathe T., C S Malefho K., Marlink R. Outcomes of the Botswana national HIV/AIDS treatment programme from 2002 to 2010: a longitudinal analysis. The Lancet Global Health. January 2014

Shaffer D, Hughes MD, Sawe F, Bao Y, Moses A, Hogg E, Lockman S, Currier J. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in HIV-Infected Women Following Initiation of Lopinavir/ritonavir- and Nevirapine-based Antiretroviral Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A5208 ("OCTANE"). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Feb 20.

Mwafongo A, Nkanaunena K, Zheng Y, Hogg E, Samaneka W, Mulenga L, Siika A, Currier J, Lockman S, Hughes MD, Hosseinipour M; for the AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) A5208 Team. Renal events among women treated with tenofovir/emtricitabine in combination with either lopinavir/ritonavir or nevirapine: analysis from the AIDS Clinical Trial Group A5208 trial. AIDS 2014 Jan 18.

Boltz VF, Bao Y, Lockman S, Halvas EK, Kearney MF, McIntyre JA, Schooley RT, Hughes MD, Coffin JM, Mellors JW; for the OCTANE/A5208 Team. Low-Frequency Nevirapine (NVP)-Resistant HIV-1 Variants Are Not Associated With Failure of Antiretroviral Therapy in Women Without Prior Exposure to Single-Dose NVP. J Infect Dis. 2014 Jan 16.


Zash RM, Ajose-Popoola O, Stordal K, Souda S, Ogwu A, Dryden-Peterson S, Powis K, Lockman S, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro RL. Risk factors for mortality among human immunodeficiency virus-exposed and unexposed infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit in Botswana.
J Paediatr Child Health. 2013 Dec 23

Novitsky V, Bussmann H, Logan A, Moyo S, van Widenfelt E, Okui L, Mmalane M, Baca J, Buck L, Phillips E, Tim D, McLane MF, Lei Q, Wang R, Makhema J, Lockman S, Degruttola V, Essex M. Phylogenetic Relatedness of Circulating HIV-1C Variants in Mochudi, Botswana. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 11

Baum MK, Campa A, Lai S, Sales Martinez S, Tsalaile L, Burns P, Farahani M, Li Y, van Widenfelt E, Page JB, Bussmann H, Fawzi WW, Moyo S, Makhema J, Thior I, Essex M, Marlink R. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on disease progression in asymptomatic, antiretroviral-naive, HIV-infected adults in Botswana: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013 Nov 27

Pramanik Sollerkvist L, Gaseitsiwe S, Mine M, Sebetso G, Mphoyakgosi T, Diphoko T, Essex M, Ehrnst A. Increased CXCR4 use of HIV-1 subtype C identified by population sequencing in patients failing antiretroviral treatment compared with treatment-naïve patients in Botswana. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Nov 8.

Imade GE, Sagay AS, Chaplin B, Chebu PR, Musa J, Okpokwu J, Hamel D, Pam IC, Agbaji O, Samuels J, Meloni S, Sankalé JL, Okonkwo P, Kanki PJ.Transmitted HIV drug resistance in antiretroviral-naïve pregnant women in north central Nigeria. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Oct 28.

Dryden-Peterson S, Jayeoba O, Hughes MD, Jibril H, McIntosh K, Modise TA, Asmelash A, Powis KM, Essex M, Shapiro RL, Lockman S. Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis and Risk of Severe Anemia or Severe Neutropenia in HAART-Exposed, HIV-Uninfected Infants. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 23

Rawizza HE, Chaplin B, Meloni ST, Darin KM, Olaitan O, Scarsi KK, Onwuamah CK, Audu RA, Chebu PR, Imade GE, Okonkwo P, Kanki PJ. Accumulation of Protease Mutations among Patients Failing Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy and Response to Salvage Therapy in Niger PLoS One. 2013 Sep 17

Moyo S, Lecuyer T, Wang R, Gaseitsiwe S, Weng J, Musonda R, Bussmann H, Mine M, Engelbrecht S, Makhema J, Marlink RG, Baum MK, Novitsky V, Essex M. Evaluation of the False Recent Classification Rates of Multi-Assay Algorithms in Estimating HIV-1 Subtype C Incidence. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Aug 12

Kiwelu IE, Novitsky V, Margolin L, Baca J, Manongi R, Sam N, Shao J, McLane MF, Kapiga SH, Essex M. Frequent Intra-Subtype Recombination among HIV-1 Circulating in Tanzania. PLoS On. 2013 Aug 5

Musa J, Taiwo B, Achenbach C, Olugbenga S, Berzins B, Sagay AS, Idoko JA, Kanki PJ, Murphy RL. High-risk human papillomavirus among HIV-infected women with normal cervical cytology: a pilot study in Jos, Nigeria. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2013 May 23.

McDonald B, Moyo S, Gabaitiri L, Gaseitsiwe S, Bussmann H, Koethe JR, Musonda R, Makhema J, Novitsky V, Marlink RG, Wester CW, Essex M. Persistently Elevated Serum Interleukin-6 Predicts Mortality among Adults Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Botswana: Results from a Clinical Trial. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Apr 16

Souda S, Gaseitsiwe S, Georgette N, Powis K, Moremedi D, Iketleng T, Leidner J, Moffat C, Ogwu A, Lockman S, Moyo S, Mmalane M, Musonda R, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro R. No Clinically Significant Drug Resistance Mutations In HIV-1 subtype C Infected Women After Discontinuation Of NRTI-Based Or PI-Based HAART For PMTCT In Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Mar 28

Wang R, Weng J, Moyo S, Pain D, Barr CD, Maruapula D, Mongwato D, Makhema J, Novitsky V, Essex M. Effect of short-course antenatal Zidovudine and single-dose Nevaripine on the BED capture enzyme immunoassay levels in HIV-1 subtype C infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Mar 22

Ladep NG, Agaba PA, Agbaji O, Muazu A, Ugoagwu P, Imade G, Cooke G, McCormack S, Taylor-Robinson SD, Idoko J, Kanki P. Rates and impact of hepatitis on human immunodeficiency virus infection in a large African cohor. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Mar 14

Novitsky V, Wang R, Rossenkhan R, Moyo S, Essex M. Intra-Host Evolutionary Rates in HIV-1C env and gag during Primary Infection. Infect Genet Evol. 2013 Mar 19

Rossenkhan R, Macleod IJ, Sebunya TK, Castro-Nallar E, McLane MF, Musonda R, Gashe BA, Novitsky V, Essex M. Tat exon 1 Exhibits Functional Diversity During HIV-1 Subtype C Primary Infection. J Virol. 2013 Mar 13

Dinic L, Idigbe OE, Meloni S, Rawizza H, Akande P, Eisen G, Onwujekwe D, Agbaji O, Ani A, Kanki PJ. Sputum smear concentration may misidentify acid-fast bacilli as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Feb 7

Finucane MM, Rowley CF, Paciorek CJ, Essex M, Pagano M. Estimating the prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance using pooled samples. Stat Methods Med Res. 2013 Feb 1

Powis KM, McElrath TF, Hughes MD, Ogwu A, Souda S, Datwyler SA, von Widenfelt E, Moyo S, Nádas M, Makhema J, Machakaire E, Lockman S, Essex M, Shapiro RL. High Viral Load and Elevated Angiogenic Markers Associated with Increased Risk of Preeclampsia among Women Initiating Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in Pregnancy in the Mma Bana Study, Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Jan 22

Akanbi MO, Achenbach C, Feinglass J, Taiwo B, Adamu O, Mai P, Agbaji O, Kanki PJ, Murphy R Tuberculosis after One Year of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Nigeria. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Jan 15

Plank RM, Ndubuka NO, Wirth KE, Mwambona JT, Kebaabetswe P, Bassil B, Lesetedi C, Hussein FM, Magetse J, Nkgau M, Makhema J, Mmalane M, Creek T,Powis KM, Shapiro R, Lockman S. A Randomized Trial of Mogen Clamp versus Plastibell for Neonatal Male Circumcision in Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Jan 10


Mazzeo CI, Flanagan EH, Bobrow EA, Pitter CS, Marlink R. How the global call for elimination of pediatric HIV can support HIV-positive women to achieve their pregnancy intentions. Reprod Health Matters. 2012 Dec 20

Matthews PC, Koyanagi M, Kløverpris HN, Harndahl M, Stryhn A, Akahoshi T, Gatanaga H, Oka S, Juarez Molina C, Valenzuela Ponce H, Avila Rios S, Cole D,Carlson J, Payne RP, Ogwu A, Bere A, Ndung'u T, Gounder K, Chen F, Riddell L, Luzzi G, Shapiro R, Brander C, Walker B, Sewell AK, Reyes Teran G,Heckerman D, Hunter E, Buus S, Takiguchi M, Goulder PJ. Differential Clade-Specific HLA-B*3501 Association with HIV-1 Disease Outcome Is Linked to Immunogenicity of a Single Gag Epitope. J Virol. 2012 Dec

Sawe F, Lockman S. To B or Not to B? That Is the Question, for Global Mother-to-Child HIV-1 Transmission Prevention Programs.Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Nov 30

Agbaji O, Thio CL, Meloni S, Graham C, Muazu M, Nimzing L, Idoko J, Sankalé JL, Ekong E, Murphy R, Kanki P, Hawkins C. Impact of Hepatitis C Virus on HIV Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in Nigeria. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Nov 28

Shapiro RL., Rossi S., Ogwu A., Moss M., Leidner J., Moffat C., Lockman S., Moyo S., Makhema J., Essex M., Capparelli E. Therapeutic levels of lopinavir in late pregnancy and abacavir passage into breast milk, in the Mma Bana Study, Botswana. Antivir Ther. 2012 Nov 26

Lin NH, Becerril C, Giguel F, Novitsky V, Moyo S, Makhema J, Essex M, Lockman S, Kuritzkes DR, Sagar M. Env sequence determinants in CXCR4-using human immunodeficiency virus type-1 subtype C. Virology. 2012 Nov 25

Kiwelu IE, Novitsky V, Margolin L, Baca J, Manongi R, Sam N, Shao J, McLane MF, Kapiga SH, Essex. HIV-1 Subtypes and Recombinants in Northern Tanzania: Distribution of Viral Quasispecies. M.PLoS One. 2012

Thio CL, Smeaton L, Saulynas M, Hwang H, Saravanan S, Kulkarni S, Hakim J, Nyirenda M, Iqbal HS, Lalloo UG, Mehta AS, Hollabaugh K, Campbell TB,Lockman S, Currier JS. Characterization of HIV-HBV co-infection in a multi-national HIV-infected cohort. AIDS. 2012 Oct 22

Matthews PC, Listgarten J, Carlson JM, Payne R, Huang KH, Frater J, Goedhals D, Steyn D, van Vuuren C, Paioni P, Jooste P, Ogwu A, Shapiro R, Mncube Z,Ndung'u T, Walker BD, Heckerman D, Goulder PJ. Co-Operative Additive Effects between HLA Alleles in Control of HIV-1. PLoS One. 2012

Chen JY, Ribaudo HJ, Souda S, Parekh N, Ogwu A, Lockman S, Powis K, Dryden-Peterson S, Creek T, Jimbo W, Madidimalo T, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro RL. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Adverse Birth Outcomes Among HIV-Infected Women in Botswana. J Infect Dis. 2012 Oct 12

Schaan MM, Taylor M, Puvimanasinghe J, Busang L, Keapoletswe K, Marlink R. Sexual and reproductive health needs of HIV-positive women in Botswana - a study of health care worker's views. AIDS Care. 2012

Mackelprang RD, Baeten JM, Donnell D, Celum C, Farquhar C, de Bruyn G, Essex M, McElrath MJ, Nakku-Joloba E, Lingappa JR; for the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team. Quantifying Ongoing HIV-1 Exposure in HIV-1-Serodiscordant Couples to Identify Individuals With Potential Host Resistance to HIV-1. J Infect Dis. 2012 Oct

Wester CW, Eden SK, Shepherd BE, Bussmann H, Novitsky V, Samuels DC, Hendrickson SL, Winkler CA, O'Brien SJ, Essex M, D'Aquila RT, Degruttola V, Marlink RG. Risk factors for symptomatic hyperlactatemia and lactic acidosis among combination antiretroviral therapy-treated adults in botswana: results from a clinical trial. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Aug 28

Padian NS, Isbell MT, Russell ES, Essex M. The future of HIV prevention. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Aug 1

Marlink R, El-Sadr W, Simao M, Katabira E. Engaging to End the Epidemic: Seven Essential Steps Toward an AIDS-Free Generation. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Aug 1

MacLeod IJ, Rowley CF, Lockman S, Ogwu A, Moyo S, van Widenfelt E, Mmalane M, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro RL. Abacavir alters the transcription of inflammatory cytokines in virologically suppressed, HIV-infected women. J Int AIDS Soc. 2012 Jul 10

Dinic L, Akande P, Idigbe EO, Ani A, Onwujekwe D, Agbaji O, Akanbi M, Nwosu R, Adeniyi B, Wahab M, Lekuk C, Kunle-Ope C, Nwokoye N, Kanki P. Genetic determinants of drug-resistant tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients in Nigeria. J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Sep

Rossenkhan, R., Novitsky, V., Sebunya, T.K., Leidner, J., Hagan, J.E., Moyo, S., Smeaton, L., Lockman, S., Musonda, R., Ndung'u, T., Gaseitsiwe, S., Thior, I., Mmalane, M., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Shapiro, R. Infant Feeding Practices were not Associated with Breast Milk HIV-1 RNA Levels in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Botswana. AIDS Behav. 2012 Jul

Lockman S, Hughes M, Sawe F, Zheng Y, McIntyre J, Chipato T, Asmelash A, Rassool M, Kimaiyo S, Shaffer D, Hosseinipour M, Mohapi L, Ssali F, Chibowa M,Amod F, Halvas E, Hogg E, Alston-Smith B, Smith L, Schooley R, Mellors J, Currier J; OCTANE (Optimal Combination Therapy After Nevirapine Exposure) ACTG A5208/OCTANE Study Team. Nevirapine- versus lopinavir/ritonavir-based initial therapy for HIV-1 infection among women in Africa: a randomized trial. PLoS Med. 2012

Adjorlolo-Johnson G, Wahl A, Ramachandran S, Strasser S, Kouakou J, Tindyebwa D, Alons C, Neluheni T, Lee S, Marlink R. Scaling up Pediatric HIV Care and Treatment in Africa: Clinical Site Characteristics Associated with Favorable Service Utilization. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2012 Sep 5

Raabya Rossenkhan, Vladimir Novitsky, Theresa K. Sebunya, Rosemary Musonda, Berhanu A. Gashe, M. Essex. Viral Diversity and Diversification of Major Non-Structural Genes vif, vpr, vpu, tatexon 1 and rev exon 1 during Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. PLoS One. 2012

Carlson JM, Listgarten J, Pfeifer N, Tan V, Kadie C, Walker BD, Ndung'u T, Shapiro R, Frater J, Brumme ZL, Goulder PJ, Heckerman D. Widespread impact of HLA restriction on immune control and escape pathways of HIV-1. J Virol. 2012 May

Shapiro, Roger L.; Souda, Sajini; Parekh, Natasha; Binda, Kelebogile; Kayembe, Mukendi; Lockman, Shahin; Svab, Petr; Babitseng, Orphinah; Powis, Kathleen; Jimbo, William; Creek, Tracy; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max; Roberts, Drucilla J.; Vermund, Sten H. High Prevalence of Hypertension and Placental Insufficiency, but No In Utero HIV Transmission, among Women on HAART with Stillbirths in Botswana.PLoS ONE. 2012

Becquet R, Marston M, Dabis F, Moulton LH, Gray G, Coovadia HM, Essex M, Ekouevi DK, Jackson D, Coutsoudis A, Kilewo C, Leroy V, Wiktor SZ, Nduati R, Msellati P, Zaba B, Ghys PD, Newell ML; UNAIDS Child Survival Group.Children who acquire HIV infection perinatally are at higher risk of early death than those acquiring infection through breastmilk: a meta-analysis.PLoS ONE. 2012

Skinner-Adams TS, Butterworth AS, Porter KA, D'Amico R, Sawe F, Shaffer D, Siika A, Hosseinipour MC, Stringer E, Currier JS, Chipato T, Salata R, Lockman S, Eron JJ, Meshnick SR, McCarthy JS. The Frequency of Malaria Is Similar among Women Receiving either Lopinavir/Ritonavir or Nevirapine-based Antiretroviral Treatment. PLoS ONE Apr 3

Novitsky, V., Essex, M. Using HIV viral load to guide treatment-for-prevention interventions. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2012 Mar 7

Heidari, S., Karim, Q., Auerbach, J., Buitendijk, S., Cahn, P., Curno, M., Hankins, C., Katabira, E., Kippax, S., Marlink, R., Marsh, J., Marusci, A., Nass, H., Montaner, J., Pollitzer, E., Ruiz-Cantero, M., Sherr, L., Sow, P., Squires, K., Wainberg, M. Gender-Sensitive Reporting in Clinical Research.  Journal of the International AIDS Soceity. 2012 March 8

Wester, C.W., Stitelman, O.M., Degruttola, V., Bussmann, H., Marlink, R.G., van der Laan, M.J. Effect Modification by Sex and Baseline CD4+ Cell Count Among Adults Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Botswana: Results from a Clinical Trial. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Feb 6

Dong, B.J., Zheng, Y., Hughes, M.D., Frymoyer, A., Verotta, D., Lizak, P., Sawe, F., Currier, J.S., Lockman, S., Aweeka, F.T.; for the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 5208 Team. Nevirapine (NVP) pharmacokinetics (PK) and risk of rash and hepatitis among HIV-infected Sub-Saharan African Women. AIDS. 2012 Feb 1

Heidari, S., Mofenson, L., Hobbs, C., Cotton, M., Marlink, R., Katabira, E. Unresolved Antiretroviral Treatment Management Issues in HIV-Infected Children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.2012 Feb 1

Laeyendecker, O., Brookmeyer, R., Mullis, C., Donnell, D., Lingappa, J., Celum, C., Baeten, J.M., Campbell, M.S., Essex, M., de Bruyn, G., Farquhar, C., Quinn, T.C., Eshleman, S. Specificity of four laboratory approaches for cross-sectional HIV incidence determination: Analysis of samples from adults with known non-recent HIV infection from five African countries. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Jan 29

Lockman, S., Sax, P. Treatment-for-prevention: clinical considerations. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2012 Jan 5


Armstrong, K.L., Lee, T.H., Essex, M. The Replicative Fitness Costs of Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Drug Resistance Mutations on HIV Subtype C. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Mar 14. [Epub ahead of print]

Agaba. P.A., Digin, E., Makai, R., Apena, L., Agbaji, O.O., Idoko, J.A., Murphy, R., Kanki, P. Clinical characteristics and predictors of mortality in hospitalized HIV-infected Nigerians. J Infect Dev Ctries. May 28;5(5):377-82. (2011)

Baeten, J.M., Lingappa, J., Beck., I., Freukel, L., Pepper, G., Wald, A., Fife, K., Were, E., Mugo, N., Sanchez, J., Essex, M., Makhema, J., Kiare, J., Farquhar, C., Corey, L., and Celum, C. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Suppressive Therapy with Acyclovir or Valacyclovir Does Not Select for Specific HIV-1 Resistance in HIV 1/HSV-2 Dually Infected Persons. J. Infect. Dis. 203:117–21 (2011).

Brown, B.J., Oladokun, R.E., Osinusi, K., Ochigbo, S., Adewole, I.F., Kanki, P. Disclosure of HIV status to infected children in a Nigerian HIV Care Programme. AIDS Care. Apr 5:1-6

Bussmann, H., de la Hoz Gomez, F., Roels, T.H., Wester, C.W., Bodika, S.M., Moyo, S., Taffa, N., Anderson, M.G., Mine, M., Bile, E.C., Yang, C., Mphoyakgosi, K., Lehotzky, E.A., Mlotshwa, B., Mmelesi, M., Seipone, K., Makhema, M.J., Marlink, R.G., Novitsky, V., Essex, M. Prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance in Botswana: lessons learned from the HIVDR-Threshold Survey conducted among women presenting for routine antenatal care as part of the 2007 national sentinel survey. AIDS ResHum Retroviruses. 2011 Apr 27

Ciaranello, A.L., Lockman, S., Freedberg, K.A., Hughes, M., Chu, J., Currier, J., Wood, R., Holmes, C.B., Pillay, S., Conradie, F., McIntyre, J., Losina, E., Walensky, R.P. for the CEPAC-International and OCTANE Investigators. First-line antiretroviral therapy after single-dose nevirapine exposure in South Africa: a cost-effectiveness analysis of the OCTANE trial. AIDS. 2011

Cohen, M.S., Chen, Y.Q., McCauley, M., Gamble, T., Hosseinipour, M.C., Kumarasamy, N., Hakim, J.G., Kumwenda, J., Grinsztejn, B., Pilotto, J.H., Godbole, S.V., Mehendale, S., Chariyalertsak, S., Santos, B.R., Mayer, K.H., Hoffman, I.F., Eshleman, S.H., Piwowar-Manning, E., Wang, L., Makhema, J., Mills, L.A., de Bruyn, G., Sanne, I., Eron, J., Gallant, J., Havlir, D., Swindells, S., Ribaudo, H., Elharrar, V., Burns, D., Taha, T.E., Nielsen-Saines, K., Celentano, D., Essex, M., Fleming, T.R.; the HPTN 052 Study Team. Prevention of HIV-1 Infection with Early Antiretroviral Therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jul 18

Dryden-Peterson, S., Shapiro, R.L., Hughes, M.D., Powis, K., Ogwu, A., Moffat, C., Moyo, S., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Lockman, S. Increased Risk of Severe Infant Anemia Following Exposure to Maternal HAART, Botswana. JAIDS. 2011 Jan 25

Dryden-Peterson, S., Jayeoba, O., Hughes, M.D., Jibril, H., Keapoletswe, K., Tlale, J., Modise, T.A., Asmelash, A., Moyo, S., van Widenfel,t E., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Shapiro, R.L., Lockman, S. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy versus Zidovudine for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission in a Programmatic Setting, Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Jul 22

Firnhaber, C., Evans, D., Friedman-Khalili, R., Willliams, S., Michelow, P., Matlhagela, K., Wester, C., Grinsztejn, B., Lockman, S. Seroprevalence of HPV vaccine types 6, 11, 16 and 18 in HIV-infected women from South Africa, Brazil and Botswana. J Clin Virol. 2011 Sep 9. [Epub ahead of print]

Heidari, S., Mofenson, L.M., Hobbs, C.V., Cotton, M.F., Marlink, R., Katabira, E. Unresolved Antiretroviral Treatment Management Issues in HIV-Infected Children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Dec 1

Jayeoba, O., Dryden-Peterson, S., Okui, L., Smeaton, L., Magetse, J., Makori, L., Modikwa, V., Mogodi, M., Plank, R., Lockman, S. Acceptability of Male Circumcision Among Adolescent Boys and their Parents, Botswana. AIDS Behav. 2011 Mar 25

Lin, N.H., Smeaton, L.M., Giguel, F., Novitsky, V., Moyo, S., Mitchell, R.M., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Lockman, S., and Kuritzkes, D.R. Prevalence and clinical associations of CXCR4-using HIV-1 among treatment-naive subtype C-infected women in Botswana. JAIDS. 2011 Feb 21

Lingappa, J.R., Petrovski, S., Kahle, E., Fellay, J., Shianna, K., McElrath, M.J., Thomas, K.K., Baeten, J.M., Celum, C., Wald, A., de Bruyn, G., Mullins, J.I., Nakku-Joloba, E., Farquhar, C., Essex, M., Donnell, D., Kiarie, J., Haynes, B., Goldstein, D.; for the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team .Genomewide Association Study for Determinants of HIV-1 Acquisition and Viral Set Point in HIV-1 Serodiscordant Couples with Quantified Virus Exposure. PLoS One. 2011 Dec 12.

Matthews, L.T., Ribaudo, H.J., Parekh, N.K., Chen, J.Y., Binda, K., Ogwu, A., Makhema, J., Souda, S., Lockman, S., Essex, M., Shapiro, R.L. Birth weight for gestational age norms for a large cohort of infants born to HIV-negative women in Botswana compared with norms for U.S-born black infants. BMC Pediatr. 2011 Dec 16

Macleod IJ, O'Donnell B, Moyo S, Lockman S, Shapiro RL, Kayembe M, van Widenfelt E, Makhema J, Essex M, Wester C.Prevalence of HPV Genotypes and Associated Cervical Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in HIV+ Women in Botswana. J Med Virol. 2011

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Margolin, L., Baca, J., Rossenkhan, R., Moyo, S., van Widenfelt, E., and Essex, M. Transmission of Single and Multiple Viral Variants in Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. PLoS One. 2011

Novitsky, V., Ndung'u, T., Wang, R., Bussmann, H., Chonco, F., Makhema, J., De Gruttola, V., Walker, B.D., Essex, M. Extended high viremics: a substantial fraction of individuals maintain high plasma viral RNA levels after acute HIV-1 subtype C infection. AIDS. 2011 Apr 18

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Baca, J., Margolin, L., McLane, MF., Moyo, S., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., Essex, M. Evolutionary gamut of in vivo Gag substitutions during early HIV-1 subtype C infection. Virology. 2011 Oct 17

Parekh, N., Ribaudo, H., Souda, S., Chen, J., Mmalane, M., Powis, K., Essex, M., Makhema, J., Shapiro, R.L. Risk factors for very preterm delivery and delivery of very-small-for-gestational-age infants among HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants in Botswana. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011 Jul 16

Porter, K.A., Cole, S.R., Eron, J.J. Jr, Zheng, Y., Hughes, M.D., Lockman, S., Poole, C., Skinner-Adams, T.S., Hosseinipour, M., Shaffer, D., D'Amico, R., Sawe, F.K., Siika, A., Stringer, E., Currier, J.S., Chipato, T., Salata, R., McCarthy, J.S., Meshnick, S.R. HIV-1 protease inhibitors and clinical malaria: A secondary analysis of ACTG A5208. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Nov 28. [Epub ahead of print]

Powis, K.M., Smeaton, L., Ogwu, A., Lockman, S. Dryden-Peterson, S., van Widenfelt, E., Leidner, J., Makhema, J., Essex, M., and Shapiro, R.L. Effects of in utero antiretroviral exposure on longitudinal growth of HIV-exposed uninfected infants in Botswana. JAIDS. 2011

Powis, K.M., Kitch, D., Ogwu, A., Hughes, M.D., Lockman, S., Leidner, J., van Widenfelt, E., Moffat, C., Moyo, S., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Shapiro, R.L. Increased Risk of Preterm Delivery Among HIV-Infected Women Randomized to Protease Versus Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based HAART During Pregnancy. J Infect Dis. 2011 Aug.

Rawizza, H.E., Chaplin, B., Meloni, S.T., Eisen, G., Rao, T., Sankalé, J.L., Dieng-Sarr, A., Agbaj,i O., Onwujekwe, D.I., Gashau, W., Nkado, R., Ekong, E., Okonkwo, P., Murphy, R.L., Kanki, P.J.; for the APIN PEPFAR Team. Immunologic Criteria Are Poor Predictors of Virologic Outcome: Implications for HIV Treatment Monitoring in Resource-Limited Settings. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Dec

Wester, C.W., Koethe, J.R., Shepherd, B.E., Stinnette, S.E., Rebeiro, P.F., Kipp, A..M., Hong, H., Bussmann, H., Gaolathe, T., McGowan, C.C., Sterling, T.R., Marlink, R.G Non-AIDS Defining Events Among HIV-1 Infected Adults Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy In Urban Settings in Sub-Saharan Africa and the United States. AIDS. 2011 May 12

Write, J.K., Novitsky, V., Brockman, M.A., Brumme, Z.L., Brumme, C.J., Carlson, J.M., Heckerman, D., Wang, B., Losina, E., Leshwedi, M., van der Stok, M., Maphumulo, L., Mkhwanazi, N., Chonoc, F., Goulder, P.J.R., Essex, M., Walker, B.D., and Ndung'u, T. Influence of Gag-Protease-Mediated Replication Capacity on Disease Progression in Individuals Recently Infected with HIV-1 Subtype C. J of Virology. 2011 Feb 2



Celum, C., Wald, A., Lingappa, J.R., Magaret, A.S., Wang, R.S., Mugo, N., Mujugira, A., Baeten, J.M., Mullins, J.I., Hughes, J.P., Bukusi, E.A., Cohen, C.R., Katabira, E., Ronald, A., Kiarie, J., Farquhar, C., Stewart, G.J., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Were, E., Fife, K.H., de Bruyn, G., Gray, G.E., McIntyre, J.A., Manongi, R., Kapiga, S., Coetzee, D., Allen, S., Inambao, M., Kayitenkore, K., Karita, E., Kanweka, W., Delany, S., Rees, H., Vwalika, B., Stevens, W., Campbell, M.S., Thomas, K.K., Coombs, R.W., Morrow, R., Whittington, W.L.H., McElrath, M.J., Barnes, L., Ridzon, R., and Corey, L., for the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team. Acyclovir and Transmission of HIV-1 from Persons Infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2. N Engl J Med. 362:427 (2010).

Chen, J.Y., Ogwu, A.C., Svab, P., Lockman, S., Moffat, H.J., Gaolathe, T., Moilwa, S., Størdal, K., Dryden-Peterson, S., Moffat, C., Makhema, J., Essex, M., and Shapiro, R.L. Antiretroviral Treatment Initiation among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women with Low CD4+ Cell Counts in Gaborone, Botswana. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 54:102–6 (2010).

Chigwedere, P. and Essex, M. AIDS Denialism and Public Health Practice. AIDS Behav. 2010. Epub 8 January 2010.

Kebaabetswe, P., Ndase, P., Mujugira, A., Sekoto, T., Ntshimane, M., Owor, A., Makhema, J., Thior, I., and Essex, M. Perceptions of couple HIV counseling and testing in Botswana: A stakeholder analysis. Patient Educ. Couns. 79:120–3 (2010).

Lin, N.H., Negusse, D.M., Beroukhim, R., Giguel, F., Lockman, S., Essex, M., and Kuritzkes, D.R. The Design and Validation of a Novel Phenotypic Assay to Determine HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage of Clinical Isolates. J Virol Methods. 169:39–46 (2010).

Lingappa., J.R., Baeten, J.M., Wald, A., Hughes, J.P., Thomas, K.T., Mujugira, A., Mugo, N., Bukusi, E.A., Cohen, C.R., Katabira, E., Ronald, A., Kiarie, J., Farquhar, C., Steward, G.J., Makehma, J., Essex, M., Were, E., Fife, K.H., de Bruyen, G., Gray, G.E., McIntyre, J.A., Manongi, R., Kapiga, S., Coetzee, D., Allen, S., Inambao, M., Kayitenkore, K., Karita, E., Kanweka, W., Delany, S., Rees, H., Vwalika, B., Magaret, A.S., Wang, R.S., Kidoguchi, L., Barnes, L., Ridzon, R., Corey, L., and Celum, C. for the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team. Daily aciclovir for HIV-1 disease progression in people dually infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet. 375: 824-833. (2010)

Lingappa, J.R., Hughes, J.P., Wang, R.S., Baeten, J.M., Celum, C., Gray, G.E., Stevens, W., Donnell, D., Campbell, M.S., Farquhar, C., Essex, M., Mullins, J.I., Coombs, R.W., Rees, H., Corey, L., and Wald, A. for the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team. Estimating the Impact of Plasma HIV-1 RNA Reductions on Heterosexual HIV-1 Transmission Risk. PLoS One.5:e12598. (2010)

Lockman, S., Hughes, M.D., McIntyre, J., Zheng, Y., Chipato, T., Conradie, F., Sawe, F., Asmelash, A., Hosseinipour, M.C., Mohapi, L., Stringer, E., Mngqibisa, R., Siika, A., Atwine, D., Hakim, J., Shaffer, D., Kanyama, C., Wools-Kaloustian, K., Salata, R.A., Hogg, E., Alston-Smith, B., Walawander, A., Purcelle-Smith, E., Eshleman, S., Rooney, J., Rahim, S., Mellors, J.W., Schooley, R.T., Currier, J.S.; OCTANE A5208 Study Team. Antiretroviral therapies in women after single-dose nevirapine exposure. N Engl J Med. Oct 14; 363(16):1499-509. (2010).

MacLeod, I.J., Rowley, C.F., Essex, M., and Lockman, S. Minor Resistant Variants in Nevirapine-Exposed Infants May Predict Virologic Failure on Nevirapine-Containing ART. J. Clin. Virol. 48:162–7 (2010).

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Bussmann, H., Lockman, S., Baum, M., Shapiro, R., Thior, I., Wester, C., Wester, C.W., Ogwu, A., Asmelash, A., Musonda, R., Campa, A., Moyo, S., van Widenfelt, E., Mine, M., Moffat, C., Mmalane, M., Makhema, J., Marlink, R., Gilbert, P., Seage, G.R. 3rd, DeGruttola, V., and Essex, M. HIV-1 Subtype C Infected Individuals Maintaining High Viral Load as Potential Targets for the “Test-and-Treat” Approach to Reduce HIV Transmission. PloS One. 5:e10148 (2010).

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Lagakos, S., and Essex, M. HIV-1 Subtype C Phylodynamics in the Global Epidemic. Viruses. 2:33–54 (2010).

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Margolin, L., Baca, J., Moyo, S., Musonda, R., and Essex, M. Dynamics and Timing of in Vivo Mutations at Gag Residue 242 during Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. Virology. 403:37–46 (2010).

Plank, R.M., Makhema, J., Kebaabetswe, P., Hussein, F., Leseidi, C., Halperinm D., Bassil, B., Shapiro, R., Lockman, S. Acceptability of infant male circumcision as part of HIV prevention and male reporductive health efforts in Gaborone, Botswana, and surrounding areas. AIDS Behav. Oct;14(5):1198-202. (2010)

Rowley, C.F., Boutwell, C.L., Lee, E.J., MacLeod, I.J., Ribaudo, H.J., Essex, M, and Lockman, S. Ultrasensitive Detection of Minor Drug-Resistant Variants for HIV after Nevirapine Exposure Using Allele-Specific PCR: Clinical Significance. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 26:293–300 (2010).

Shapiro, R., Hughes, M., Ogwu, A., Kitch, D., Lockman, S., Moffat, C., Makhema, J., Moyo, S., Thior, I., McIntosh, K., van Widenfelt, E., Leidner, J., Powis, K., Asmelash, A., Tumbare, E., Zwerski, S., Sharma, U., Handelsman, E., Mburu, K., Jayeoba, O., Moko, E., Souda, S., Lubega, E., Akhtar, M., Wester, C., Snowden, W., Martinez-Tristani, M., Mazhani, L., Essex, M. Antiretroviral Regimens in Pregnancy and Breast-Feeding in Botswana. N Engl J Med. 362:2282-2294. (2010).

Shapiro, R.L., Lockman, S. Mortality among HIV-exposed infants: the first and final frontier. Clin Infect Dis. Feb 1;50(3):445-7. (2010)

Teeravechyan, S., Essex, M., and Lee, T.H. Conserved Determinants of Enhanced CCR5 Binding in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Subtype D Envelope Third Variable Loop. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 26:481–8 (2010).

Wester, C.W., Thomas, A.M., Bussmann, H., Moyo, S., Makhema, J.M., Gaolathe, T.,Novitsky, V., Essex, M., DeGruttola, V., and Marlink, R.G. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor outcomes among combination antiretroviral therapy-treated adults in Botswana. AIDS. Suppl 1:S27–36 (2010).



Armstrong, K.L., Lee, TH, and Essex, M. Replicative Capacity Differences of Thymidine Analog Resistance Mutations in Subtype B and C Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1. J. Virol. 83: 4051-4059 (2009)

Boutwell, C.L., Rowley, C.F., and Essex, M. Reduced Viral Replication Capacity of HIV-1 Subtype C Caused by CTL Escape Mutations in HLA-B57 Epitopes of Capsid Protein. J. Virol. 83:2460–2468 (2009).

Bussmann, H., Wester, C.W., Thomas, A., Novitsky, V., Okezie, R., Muzenda, T., Gaolathe, T., Ndwapi, N., Mawoko, N., Widenfelt, E., Moyo, S., Musonda, R., Mine, M., Makhema, J., Moffat, H., Essex, M., DeGruttola, V., and Marlink, R.G. Response to Zidovudine/Didanosine-Containing Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Adults in Botswana: Two-Year Outcomes from a Randomized Clinical Trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 51:37–46 (2009).

Chen, J.Y., Ogwu, A.C., Svab, P., Lockman, S., Moffat, H.J., Gaolathe, T., Moilwa, S., Størdal, K., Dryden-Peterson, S., Moffat, C., Makhema, J., Essex, M., and Shapiro, R.L. Antiretroviral Treatment Initiation among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women with Low CD4+ Cell Counts in Gaborone, Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Epub 27 October 2009.

Doualla-Bell, F., Gaolathe, T., Avalos, A., Cloutier, S., Ndwapi, N., Holcroft, C., Moffat., H., Dickinson, D., Essex, M., Wainberg, M.A., Mine, M. Five-year follow up of genotypic resistance patterns in HIV-1 subtype C infected patients in Botswana after failure of thymidine analogue-based regimens. J. of International AIDS Society. 12:25. (2009)

Lingappa, J.R., Kahle E., Mugo, N., Mujugira, A., Magaret, A., Baeten, J., Bukusi, E.A., Cohen, C.R., Katabira, E., Ronald, A., Kiarie, J., Farquhar, C., Stewart, G.J., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Were E., Fife K., deBruyn, G., Gray, G., McIntyre, J., Manongi, R., Kapiga, S., Coetzee, D., Allen, S., Inambao, M., Kayitenkore, K., Karita, E., Kanweka, W., Delany, S., Rees, H., Vwalika, B., Coombs, R.W., Morrow, R., Whittington, W., Corey, L., Wald, A., and Celum, C., for the Partners HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Study Team. Characteristics of HIV-1 Discordant Couples Enrolled in a Trial of HSV-2 Suppression to Reduce HIV-1 Transmission: The Partners Study. PLoS ONE. 4:e5272 (2009).

Lockman, S., Creek, T. Acute maternal HIV infection during pregnancy and breast-feeding: substantial risk to infants. J Infect Dis. Sep 1;200(5):667-9. (2009)

Novitsky, V., Lagakos, S., Herzig, M., Bonney, C., Kebaabetswe, L, Rossenkhan, R., Nkwe, D., Margolin, L., Musonda, R., Moyo, S., Woldegabriel, E., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., and Essex, M. Evolution of Proviral gp120 over the First Year of HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. Virology. 383:47–59 (2009).

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Margolin, L., Baca, J., Kebaabetswe, L., Rossenkhan, R., Bonney, C., Herzig, M., Nkwe, D., Moyo, S., Musonda, R., Woldegabriel, E., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., Lagakos, S., and Essex, M. Timing Constraints of in Vivo Gag Mutations during Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. PLoS One. 4:e7727 (2009).

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Kebaabetswe, L., Greenwald, J., Rossenkhan, R., Moyo, S., Musonda, R., Woldegabriel, E., Lagakos, S., and Essex, M. Better Control of Early Viral Replication Is Associated with Slower Rate of Elicited Antiviral Antibodies in the Detuned EIA during Primary HIV-1C Infection. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 52:265–272 (2009). .

Novitsky, V., Woldegabriel, E., Kebaabetswe, L., Rossenkhan, R., Mlotshwa, B., Bonney, C., Herzig, M., Finucane, M., Musonda, R., Moyo, S., Wester, C., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., Lagakos, S., and Essex, M. Viral Load and CD4+ T Cell Dynamics in Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 50:65–76 (2009).

Mine, M., Bedi, K., Maruta, T., Madziva, D., Tau, M., Zana, T., Gaolathe, T., Moyo, S., Seipone, K., Ndwapi, N., Essex, M., and Marlink, R. Quantitation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Load in Plasma Using Reverse Transcriptase Activity Assay at a District Hospital Laboratory in Botswana: A Decentralization Pilot Study. J. Virol. Methods. 159:93–97 (2009).

Rossenkhan, R., Ndung’u, T., Sebunya, T., Hagan, J., Shapiro, R., Novitsky, V., Moyo, S.M., Thior, I., Lockman, S., Mitchell, R., Kim, S., Musonda, R., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., and Essex, M. Temporal Reduction of HIV Type 1 Viral Load in Breast Milk by Single-Dose Nevirapine during Prevention of MTCT. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 25:1261–4 (2009).

Shapiro, R.L., Smeaton, L., Lockman, S., Thior, I., Rossenkahn, R., Wester, C., Stevens, L., Moffat, C., Arimi, P., Ndase, P., Asmelash, A., Leidner, J., Novitsky, V., Makhema, J., and Essex, M. Risk Factors for Early and Late Transmission of HIV via Breast-Feeding among Infants Born to HIV-Infected Women in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Botswana. J. Infect. Dis. 199:414–418 (2009).

Shipton, L.K., Wester, C.W., Stock, S., Ndwapi, N., Gaolathe, T., Thior, I., Avalos, A., Moffat, H.J., Mboya J.J., Widenfelt, E., Essex, M., Hughes, M.D., and Shapiro, R.L. Safety and Efficacy of Nevirapine and Efavarinz-Based Antiretroviral Treatment in Adults Treated for TB-HIV Co-Infection in Botswana. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 13:360–366 (2009).

Wester, C.W., Bussmann, H., Koethe, J., Moffat, C., Vermund, S., Essex, M., and Marlink, R.G. Adult Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Botswana and Future Challenges. HIV Ther. 3:501–526 (2009).



Assoumou, L., Brun-Vezinet, F., Cozzi-Lepri, A., Kuritzkes, D., Phillips, A., Zolopa, A., Degruttola, V., Miller, V., Costagliola, D. Initiatives for developing and comparing genotype interpretation systems: external validation of existing systems for didanosine against virological response. J. Infect. Dis. Aug 15; 198(4): 470-80 (2008)

Bae, W.H., Wester, C., Shapiro, R.L., Lockman, S., Onyait, K., Thior, I., and Essex, M. Hematologic and Hepatic Toxicities Associated with Antenatal and Postnatal Exposures to Maternal HAART in Infants in Botswana. AIDS. 22:1633–1640 (2008).

Bangsberg, DR. Preventing HIV antiretroviral resistance through better monitoring of treatment adherence. J. Infect. Dis. May 15; 197 Suppl 3: S272-8 (2008)

Bangsberg, DR. A paradigm shift to prevent HIV drug resistance. PLoS Med. May 20; 5(5): e111 (2008)

Bangsberg, DR. The Achilles' heel of HIV treatment in resource-limited settings. JAIDS. Feb 1; 47(2): 266-7 (2008)

Bussmann, C., Rotz, P., Ndwapi, N., Baxter, D., Bussmann, Hi., Wester, W.C., Ncube, P., Avalos, A., Mine, M., Mabe, E., Burns, P.J., Cardiello, P., Makehma, J., Marlink, R. Strengthening Healthcard Capacity Through a Responsive, Country-Specific, Training Standard: The KITSO AIDS Training Program's Support of Botswana's National Antiretroviral Therapy Rollout. The Open AIDS Journal, 2:8-20 (2008)

Bussmann, H., Wester, C.W., Ndwapi, N., Grundmann, N., Gaolathe, T., Puvimanasinghe, J., Avalos, A., Mine, M., Seipone, K., Essex, M., deGruttola, V., and Marlink, R.G. Five-Year Outcomes of Initial Patients Treated in Botswana’s National Antiretroviral Treatment Program. AIDS. 22:2303–2311 (2008).

Chigwedere, P., Seage, G.R. III, Lee, T.H., and Essex, M. Efficacy of Antiretroviral Drugs in Reducing Mother to Child Transmission of HIV in Africa: A Meta-Analysis of Published Clinical Trials. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 24(6): 827-37 (2008).

Chigwedere, P., Seage, G.R., III, Gruskin, S., Lee, T.-H., and Essex, M. Estimating the Lost Benefits of Antiretroviral Drug Use in South Africa. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 49:410–415 (2008).

Earls, F., Raviola, GJ., Carlson, M. Promoting child and adolescent mental health in the context of the HIV/AIDS pandemic with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa. J-Child-Psychol-Psychiatry. Mar; 49(3): 295-312 (2008)

Essex, M., and Lu, Y. HIV/AIDS: Lessons from a New Disease Pandemic. In: Emerging Infections in Asia. Lu, Y., Essex, M., and Roberts, B., eds. New York: Springer, pp. 133-142 (2008).

Fisher, JC., Cook, PA., Sam, NE., Kapiga, SH. Patterns of alcohol use, problem drinking, and HIV infection among high-risk African women. Sex. Transm. Dis. Jun; 35(6): 537-44 (2008)

Frosythe S, Bertozzi S, Moatti JP, Marlink R, Luchini S, Kazatchkine M. I. Infoming scale-up and resource allocation: the use of economic analysis. II. Universal Access to HIV Treatment in Developing Countries: Going Beyond the Misinterpretations of the “Cost-effectiveness” Algorithm. III. The Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS on households and economies. AIDS, Volume 22 Suppl 1:S5-S6, S59-S66, S87-S88. July 2008.

Gruskin, S., Tarantola, D. Universal Access to HIV prevention, treatment and care: assessing the inclusion of human rights in international and national strategic plans. AIDS. Aug; 22 Suppl 2: S123-32 (2008)

Gruskin, S., Firestone, R., Maccarthy, S., Ferguson, L. HIV and pregnancy intentions: do services adequately respond to women's needs? Am. J. Public Health. Oct; 98(10): 1746-50 (2008)

Hendrickson, SL., Jacobson, LP., Nelson, GW., Phair, JP., Lautenberger, J., Johnson, RC., Kingsley, L., Margolick, JB., Detels, R., Goedert, JJ., O'Brien, SJ. Host genetic influences on highly active antiretroviral therapy efficacy and AIDS-free survival. JAIDS. Jul 1; 48(3): 263-71 (2008)

Hughes, MD., Ribaudo, HR. The search for data on when to start treatment for HIV infection. J. Infect. Dis. Apr 15; 197(8): 1084-6 (2008)

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Kamo, N., Carlson, M., Brennan, RT., Earls, F. Young citizens as health agents: use of drama in promoting community efficacy for HIV/AIDS. Am. J. Public Health. Feb; 98(2): 201-4 (2008)

Kupka, R., Mugusi, F., Aboud, S., Msamanga, GI., Finkelstein, JL., Spiegelman, D., Fawzi, WW. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of selenium supplements among HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania: effects on maternal and child outcomes. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. Jun; 87(6): 1802-8 (2008)

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Lagakos, SW., Gable, AR. Challenges to HIV prevention--seeking effective measures in the absence of a vaccine. N. Engl. J. Med. Apr 10; 358(15): 1543-5 (2008)

Marconi, V., Bonhoeffer, S., Paredes, R., Lu, J., Hoh, R., Martin, JN., Deeks, SG., Kuritzkes, DR. Viral dynamics and in vivo fitness of HIV-1 in the presence and absence of enfuvirtide.JAIDS. Aug 15; 48(5): 572-6 (2008)

Marconi, VC., Sunpath, H., Lu, Z., Gordon, M., Koranteng-Apeagyei, K., Hampton, J., Carpenter, S., Giddy, J., Ross, D., Holst, H., Losina, E., Walker, BD., Kuritzkes, DR. Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance after failure of a first highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Clin. Infect. Dis. May 15; 46(10): 1589-97 (2008)

Marlink, R., Forsythe, S., Bertozzi, SM., Muirhead, D., Holmes, M., Sturchio, J. Re: This special issue of AIDS--a mix of recent economic analyses and commentary on how best to distill economic insights to improve HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. AIDS. Jul; 22 Suppl 1: S1-4

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Martinez, P., Andia, I., Emenyonu, N., Hahn, J A., Hauff, E., Pepper, L., Bangsberg, DR. Alcohol use, depressive symptoms and the receipt of antiretroviral therapy in southwest Uganda. AIDS-Behav. Jul; 12(4): 605-12 (2008)

Moatti, JP., Marlink, R., Luchini, S., Kazatchkine, M. Universal access to HIV treatment in developing countries: going beyond the misinterpretations of the 'cost-effectiveness' algorithm. AIDS. Jul; 22 Suppl 1: S59-66 (2008)

Moatti, J-P, Marlink, R., Luchini, S., Kazatchkine, M., Universal Access to HIV Treatnent in Developing Countries: Going Beyond the Misinterpretations of the "Cost-effectiveness" Algorithm. AIDS, 22:S59-S6 (2008).

Msisha, WM., Kapiga, S H., Earls, F J. Subramanian,-S-V. Place matters: multilevel investigation of HIV distribution in Tanzania. AIDS. Mar 30; 22(6): 741-8 (2008)

Novitsky, V., Woldegabriel, E., Wester, C., McDonald, E., Rossenkhan, R., Ketunuti, M., Makhema, J., Seage, G.R, III, and Essex, M. Identification of Primary HIV-1C Infection in Botswana. AIDS Care. 20(7): 806-11 (2008).

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Parienti, JJ., Das-Douglas, M., Massari, V., Guzman, D., Deeks, SG., Verdon, R., Bangsberg, DR. Not all missed doses are the same: sustained NNRTI treatment interruptions predict HIV rebound at low-to-moderate adherence levels. PLoS ONE. 3(7): e2783 (2008)

Patel, K., Hernan, MA., Williams, PL., Seeger, JD., McIntosh, K., Van-Dyke, RB., Seage, GR, 3rd., Long-term effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the survival of children and adolescents with HIV infection: a 10-year follow-up study. Clin. Infect. Dis. Feb 15; 46(4): 507-15 (2008)

Patel, K., Hernan, MA., Williams, PL., Seeger, JD., McIntosh, K., Dyke, RB., Seage, GR, 3rd. Long-term effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on CD4+ cell evolution among children and adolescents infected with HIV: 5 years and counting. Clin. Infect. Dis. Jun 1; 46(11): 1751-60 (2008)

Phuphuakrat A, Kraiwong R, Boonarkart C, Lauhakirti D, Lee TH, Auewarakul P. Double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminases enhance expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteins. J Virol. Nov;82(21):10864-72. (2008)

Rowley, C.F., Boutwell, C.L., Lockman, S., and Essex, M. Improvement in Allele-Specific PCR Assay with the Use of Polymorphism-Specific Primers for the Analysis of Minor Variant Drug Resistance in HIV-1 subtype C. J. Virol. Methods.149:69–75 (2008).

Schumi, J., Degruttola, V. Resampling-based analyses of the effects of combinations of HIV genetic mutations on drug susceptibility. Stat. Med. Oct 15; 27(23): 4740-57 (2008)

Tarantola, D., Gruskin, S. Pragmatic pathways to universal access: leadership, equity, accountability and partnerships in HIV prevention and care. AIDS. Aug; 22 Suppl 2: S1-2 (2008)

Teeravechyan, S., Suphaphiphat, P., Essex, M., and Lee, T.H. Relative Concordance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Oligomeric and Monomeric Envelope in CCR 5 Coreceptor Usage. Virology. 340:443-450 (2008).

Toure, S., Kouadio, B., Seyler, C.,Traore, M., Dakoury-Dogbo, N., Duvignac, J., Diakite, N., Karcher, S. Grundmann, C., Marlink, R., Dabis, F., Anglaret, X. Rapid scaling-up of antiretroviral therapy in 10,000 adults in Cote d'Ivoire: 2-year outcomes and determinants. AIDS. Apr 23; 22(7): 873-82 (2008)

Tsibris, AM., Sagar, M., Gulick, RM., Su, Z., Hughes, M., Greaves, W., Subramanian,M., Flexner, C., Giguel, F., Leopold, KE., Coakley, E., Kuritzkes, DR. In vivo emergence of vicriviroc resistance in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C-infected subject. J. Virol. Aug; 82(16): 8210-4 (2008)

Ulenga, NK., Sarr, AD., Thakore-Meloni, S., Sankale, J-L., Eisen, G., Kanki, PJ. Relationship between human immunodeficiency type 1 infection and expression of human APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F. J. Infect. Dis. Aug 15; 198(4): 486-92 (2008)

Ulenga, NK., Sarr, AD., Hamel, D., Sankale, JL., Mboup, S., Kanki, PJ. The Level of APOBEC3G (hA3G)-Related G-to-A Mutations Does Not Correlate with Viral Load in HIV Type 1-Infected Individuals. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. Oct; 24(10): 1285-90 (2008)

Villamor, E., Mugusi, F., Urassa, W., Bosch, RJ., Saathoff, E., Matsumoto, K., Meydani, SN., Fawzi, WW. A trial of the effect of micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcome, T cell counts, morbidity, and mortality in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis. J. Infect. Dis. Jun 1; 197(11): 1499-505 (2008)

Williams, PL., Van-Dyke, R., Eagle, M., Smith, D., Vincent, C., Ciupak, G., Oleske, J., Seage, GR, 3rd. Association of site-specific and participant-specific factors with retention of children in a long-term pediatric HIV cohort study. Am. J. Epidemiol. Jun 1; 167(11): 1375-86 (2008)

Yang, Y., Degruttola, V. Resampling-based multiple testing methods with covariate adjustment: application to investigation of antiretroviral drug susceptibility. Biometrics. Jun; 64(2): 329-36 (2008)

Zhang, P., Lagakos, SW. Analysis of time to a silent event whose occurrence is monitored with error, with application to mother-to-child HIV transmission. Stat. Med. Oct 15; 27(23): 4637-46 (2008)


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